A toolbox of molecular photoswitches to modulate the CXCR3 chemokine receptor with light

  1. Xavier Gómez-Santacana,
  2. Sabrina M. de Munnik,
  3. Tamara A. M. MockingORCID Logo,
  4. Niels J. HauwertORCID Logo,
  5. Shanliang Sun,
  6. Prashanna VijayachandranORCID Logo,
  7. Iwan J. P. de Esch,
  8. Henry F. VischerORCID Logo,
  9. Maikel WijtmansORCID Logo and
  10. Rob LeursORCID Logo

Submitting author affiliation: Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Beilstein Arch. 2019, 201969. https://doi.org/10.3762/bxiv.2019.69.v1

Published 15 Jul 2019

  • Preprint


We report a detailed structure-activity relationship for the scaffold of VUF16216, a compound we have previously communicated as a small-molecule efficacy photoswitch for the peptidergic chemokine GPCR CXCR3. A total of 31 photoswitchable azobenzene ligands was prepared through various synthetic strategies and multistep syntheses. Photochemical and pharmacological properties were used to guide the design iterations. Investigations of positional and substituent effects reveal that halogen substituents on the ortho position of the outer ring are preferred for conferring partial agonism on the cis form of the ligands. This effect could be further expanded by an EDG group on the para position of the central ring. A variety of efficacy differences between the trans and cis forms emerges from these compounds. Tool compounds VUF15888 (4d) and VUF16620 (6e) represent more subtle efficacy switchers, while VUF16216 (6f) displays the largest efficacy switch, from antagonism to full agonism. The compound class disclosed here can aid in new photopharmacology studies of CXCR3 signaling.

Keywords: azo compounds; chemokine receptor; efficacy photoswitching; G protein-coupled receptors; photopharmacology

Supporting Information

Format: PDF Size: 2.7 MB   Download

How to Cite

When a peer-reviewed version of this preprint is available, this information will be updated in the information box above. If no peer-reviewed version is available, please cite this preprint using the following information:

Gómez-Santacana, X.; de Munnik, S. M.; Mocking, T. A. M.; Hauwert, N. J.; Sun, S.; Vijayachandran, P.; de Esch, I. J. P.; Vischer, H. F.; Wijtmans, M.; Leurs, R. Beilstein Arch. 2019, 201969. doi:10.3762/bxiv.2019.69.v1

Download Citation
Download RIS (Reference Manager) Download BIB (BIBTEX)

© 2019 Gómez-Santacana et al.; licensee Beilstein-Institut.
This is an Open Access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0). Please note that the reuse, redistribution and reproduction in particular requires that the authors and source are credited.
The license is subject to the Beilstein Archives terms and conditions: (https://www.beilstein-archives.org/xiv/terms)

Other Beilstein-Institut Open Science Activities