p-TsOH catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction of 3-(indol-3-yl)maleimides with chalcone in toluene at 60 oC afforded two diastereoisomers of tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazoles, which can be dehydrogenated by DDQ oxidation in acetonitrile at room temperature to give the aromatized pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazoles in high yields. On the other hand, the one-pot reaction of 3-(indol-3-yl)-1,3-diphenylpropan-1-ones with chalcones in acetonitrile in the presence of p-TsOH and DDQ resulted in polyfunctionalized carbazoles in satisfactory yields. The reaction mechanism included DDQ oxidative dehydrogenation of 3-(indol-3-yl)-1,3-diphenylpropan-1-ones to the corresponding 3-vinylindoles, its acid-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction and sequential aromatization process.
Keywords: maleimide; chalcone; carbazole; 3-vinylindole; pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole; Diels-Alder reaction.
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Fang, R.-J.; Yan, C.; Sun, J.; Han, Y.; Yan, C.-G. Beilstein Arch. 2021, 202153. doi:10.3762/bxiv.2021.53.v1
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