Stochastic excitation for high-resolution Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy imaging: a system theory approach.

  1. Edgar Cruz-ValerianoORCID Logo,
  2. J. J. Gervacio Arciniega,
  3. M. A. Hernández Landaverde,
  4. Christian I. Enriquez-Flores,
  5. Yuri Chipatecua,
  6. Aime Gutierrez-Peralta,
  7. Rafael Ramírez-Bon,
  8. Susana Meraz-Dávila,
  9. Joel Moreno Palmerin and
  10. J. M. Yañez-Limón

Submitting author affiliation: Universidad Cuauhtemoc, Queretaro, Mexico

Beilstein Arch. 2019, 2019159.

Published 17 Dec 2019

  • Preprint


In this work, a high-resolution Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy imaging technique is shown in order to obtain the local indentation modulus at nanoscale using a model which gives a quantitative relationship between a set of contact resonance frequencies and indentation modulus through a white-noise excitation. This technique is based on white-noise excitation for system identification due to non-linearities in the tip-sample interaction. During a conventional scanning, a Fast Fourier Transform is applied to the deflection signal which comes from the photo-diodes of the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for each pixel, while the tip-sample interaction is excited by a white-noise signal. This approach allows the measurement of several vibrational modes in a single step with high frequency resolution, less computational data and at a faster speed than other similar techniques. This technique is referred to as Stochastic Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy (S-AFAM), where the frequency shifts with respect to free resonance frequencies for an AFM cantilever can be used to determine the mechanical properties of a material. S-AFAM is implemented and compared to a conventional technique (Resonance Tracking-Atomic Force Microscopy, RT-AFAM), where a graphite film over a glass substrate sample is analyzed. S-AFAM can be implemented in any AFM system due to its reduced instrumentation compared to conventional techniques.

Keywords: Atomic Force Microscopy; Fast Fourier Transform; Mechanical properties; System theory; White noise

How to Cite

When a peer-reviewed version of this preprint is available, this information will be updated in the information box above. If no peer-reviewed version is available, please cite this preprint using the following information:

Cruz-Valeriano, E.; Gervacio Arciniega, J. J.; Hernández Landaverde, M. A.; Enriquez-Flores, C. I.; Chipatecua, Y.; Gutierrez-Peralta, A.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Meraz-Dávila, S.; Moreno Palmerin, J.; Yañez-Limón, J. M. Beilstein Arch. 2019, 2019159. doi:10.3762/bxiv.2019.159.v1

Download Citation
Download RIS (Reference Manager) Download BIB (BIBTEX)

© 2019 Cruz-Valeriano et al.; licensee Beilstein-Institut.
This is an Open Access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( Please note that the reuse, redistribution and reproduction in particular requires that the authors and source are credited.
The license is subject to the Beilstein Archives terms and conditions: (

Other Beilstein-Institut Open Science Activities